|3D and 4D microscopy development of new powerful tools in geosciences||Microtomography (microCT) is becoming more and more widely recognized in geological sciences as a powerful tool for the spatial characterization of rock and other geological materials. Together with 3D image analysis and other complementary techniques, it has the characteristics of an innovative and non-destructive 3D microscopical technique. On the other hand its main disadvantages are low availability (only a few geological laboratories are equipped with high resolution tomographs), the relatively high prices of testing connected with the use of an x-ray source, technical limitations connected to the resolution and imaging of certain materials, as well as time-consuming and complex 3D image analysis, necessary for quantification of 3D tomographic data sets. The main goal of the present project is therefore to develop and establish protocols for optimal 3D microscopy including microCT imaging, 3D data analysis and complementary analysis, which would result in a more advanced and standardized method, which would be more easily available and applicable, and less time-consuming so cheaper. We will further develop protocols for 4D microscopy, i.e. dynamic structural processing (microCT imaging with simultaneous in-situ loading of the sample). Established protocols will be following: protocols for 3D pore analysis, data set coupling and multi-scale imaging, 3D mineralogical identification, the spatial imaging of low attenuation phases and geological materials in the presence of high attenuation phases, and dynamic microstructural processing. These protocols will be developed and demonstrated on the basis of studies of real geological samples and problems, such as the porosity of Alveolina-Nummulites limestone, crack formation in the Velenje lignite ore, and the fibre orientation and strength of high performance fibre reinforced concretes. Research will also be performed into possibilities of the use of 3D and 4D microscopy data in conventional geological modelling. The established protocols will thus directly help to solve complex geological and technical problems, and over the long term sustainability of the project impact will be ensured by the direct application of the developed protocols and know how to industry (e.g. the construction industry, primary resource industry, car production industry) and other fields of research (e.g. the development of smart sensors), as well by educating young people such as students of graduate and postgraduate programs in by transferring the latest findings and developments in the field of spatial characterization and image analysis of geological materials.||SRA - Slovenian Research Agency||Alenka Mauko Pranjić||2016/01/01||2018/12/31|
|TIGR4smart||http://www.eu-skladi.si/||MIZŠ SPS RRI||Friderik Knez||2016/09/01||2019/02/28|
|MARTINA - Materiali in tehnologije za nove aplikacije||http://www.eu-skladi.si/||MIZŠ SPS RRI||Tadeja Kosec||2016/08/01||2019/07/31|
|EVA4green||http://www.eu-skladi.si/||MIZŠ SPS RRI||Tadeja Kosec||2016/09/01||2019/02/28|
|NMP - Advanced materials and products from cellulose fibres and paper||http://www.eu-skladi.si/||MIZŠ SPS RRI||Vilma Ducman||2016/09/01||2020/08/31|
|In situ imobilizacija onesnaženih zemljin z uporabo naprednih nanotehnologij in njihova predelava v urbana tla||Ana Mladenović||2016/10/01||2018/09/30|
|Požarno varno umeščanje gorljivih materialov v stavbe z jekleno okvirno nosilno konstrukcijo: Razvoj modelov in verifikacija z eksperimenti||Jerneja Češarek Kolšek||2016/03/01||2018/02/28|
|Vpliv neravnosti vozne površine na natančnost tehtanja vozil med vožnjo na mostovih||Maja Kreslin||2016/01/01||2017/12/31|
|In-situ remediacija onesnažene zemljine na področju stare Cinkarne||Ana Mladenović||2014/07/01||2017/06/30|
|Obnašanje večetažnih strižnih sten z odprtinami pri potresni obtežbi||Miha Tomaževič||2014/07/01||2017/06/30|
|Tribokorozijski procesi-od teorije k praksi||Tadeja Kosec||2014/01/01||2017/06/30|
|Razvoj novih kamnitih površin, odpornih na biokorozijo in nastanek madežev||Alenka Mauko Pranjić||2013/01/01||2016/07/31|
|Z2-6748 Mehanizmi utrjevanja pepelov po postopku geopolimerizacije||Vilma Ducman||2014/07/01||2016/06/30|
|Sedimenti v vodnih okoljih: geokemična in mineraloška karakterizacija, remediacija ter njihova uporabnost kot sekundarna surovina||Ana Mladenović||2011/07/01||2014/06/30|
|Optimizacija dimenzioniranja gramozne grede in ostalih nosilnih plasti pod njo, z in brez geomreže||Stanislav Lenart||2009/05/01||2012/04/30|
|Potresna odpornost modernih zidanih konstrukcij||Matija Gams||2010/05/01||2012/04/30|
|Karakterizacija tribokorozijskih procesov||Tadeja Kosec||2009/05/01||2011/04/30|
|Zmanjšanje ranljivosti zgodovinskih zidanih stavb z utrjevanjem s CFRP trakovi in potresno izolacijo||Miha Tomaževič||2008/02/01||2011/01/30|
|Priprava in Karakterizacija hibridnih, nanostrukturiranih premazov za korozijsko zaščito kovinskih površin||Vilma Ducman||2007/08/01||2009/12/31|
|Zmanjšanje ranljivosti zgodovinskih zidanih stavb z utrjevanjem s CFRP trakovi in potresno izolacijo||Miha Tomaževič||2008/02/01||2011/01/30|
|Priprava in Karakterizacija hibridnih, nanostrukturiranih premazov za korozijsko zaščito kovinskih površin||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2007/08/01||2009/12/31|
|Pomen lastnosti naravnih in obstojnosti umetnih pregrad za odlagališče NSRAO in IJG||Borut Petkovšek||2006/10/01||2008/09/30|
|Karakterizacija kovinskih materialov pri pogojih špranjske korozije||Andraž Legat||2005/09/01||2007/08/31|
|Vpliv robustnosti zidakov in načina zidanja na obnašanje zidov pri potresni obtežbi||Miha Tomaževič||2004/02/01||2007/01/30|
|Raziskave in razvoj materialov historičnih objektov||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2004/07/01||2006/06/30|
|Vzdrževanje in zaščita javnih spomenikov iz brona za obdobje 2008 do 2009||MOL||Mirjam Bajt Leban||2008/01/01||2010/01/01|
|Zgodovina gradnje v Ljubljani - Pregled gradbenih lastnosti ter potresne odpornosti in ranljivosti objektov za obdobje 2008 do 2010||MOL||Miha Tomaževič||2008/01/01||2010/01/01|
|Razširitev enciklopedije naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem||Mateja Golež||2009/07/01||2010/10/18|
|TIGR - Trajnostno in inovativno gradbeništvo||MVZT||Friderik Knez||2011/01/01||2013/12/31|
|VODPREG - Zemeljske in betonske vodne pregrade strateškega pomena v RS||Mojca Ravnikar Turk||2011/10/07||2012/12/31|
|POTROG - Potresna ogroženost v Sloveniji za potrebe Civilne zaščite||http://www.zag.si/si/strokovne-dejavnosti/naravne-in-druge-nesrece/potres/potrog||MORS||Marjanca Lutman||2011/09/01||2013/06/30|
|Ocena potresne ogroženosti Mestne občine Ljubljana||Marjanca Lutman||2011/11/10||2012/11/21|
|Izvedba raziskovalnih nalog na temo "Požari" - sklop 6 - požarni gradbeni proizvodi in materiali po realnem požaru||Manca Ahačič||2012/08/02||2013/04/29|
|POTROG 3||MORS||Marjanca Lutman||2017/01/01||2018/01/01|
|Z1-8149 - Colorimetric determination of relative humidity based on mesoporous SiO2 particles||Erika Švara Fabjan||2017/05/01||2019/04/30|
|J2-8170 - Nonlinear dynamics of spatial frames with completed kinematic compatibility for demanding applications in industry||Matija Gams||2017/05/01||2020/04/30|
|KO-CATALYATERS FOR OBTAINING ENERGY PRODUCTS FROM SUNLIGHT||www.eu-skladi.si||Nejc Rozman||2017/06/01||2020/07/31|
|FOAMING PROCESS IN ALKAL ACTIVATED MATRIX AND OPTIMIZATION OF CHARACTERISTICS SUCH ACQUIRED PEN||www.eu-skladi.si||Barbara Horvat||2017/06/01||2020/07/31|
|Contents of potentially toxic elements in microplastic particles in soil from selected Slovenian urban gardens in agricultural land and effective remediation||www.eu-skladi.si||Petra Vrhovnik||2017/06/01||2020/05/30|
|BELIT-SULFOALUMINATE CLINKER FROM SECONDARY RAW MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURE OF LOW CARBON AND LOW ENERGY CEMENTS||www.eu-skladi.si||Lea Žibret||2017/06/01||2020/07/31|
|OPTIMIZATION OF CLEANING OF LEACHING WATER FROM LANDFILLS AND PREPARATION OF BUILDING COMPOSITES FROM CONCENTRATE OF LEACHING WATER AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES||www.eu-skladi.si||Andreea Oarga Mulec||2017/06/01||2020/07/31|
|L2-5571 Novi materiali za tiskane senzorje in indikatorje ter njihova integracija v pametne tiskovine||Les in lesni kompoziti so eden od ključnih materialov v sodobni gradbeni industriji. Še posebej kompoziti omogočajo načrtovanje privlačnih in zelo trajnostnih stavb. Ena od pomanjkljivosti lesa je, da ni na voljo veliko podatkov v zvezi z življenjsko dobo v različnih evropskih podnebnih pasovih. To omejuje širšo uporabo lesa. Saj investitorji nimajo na voljo podatkov, ki so potrebni za izračun stroškov vzdrževanja in celotne življenjske stroške objekta. Vendar, če so že podatki o življenjski dobi lesa redki, so podatki o življenjski dobi lesenih kompozitov še veliko bolj pomanjkljivi. Namen tega projekta je, da začnemo z vrednotenjem lastnosti in ocenami življenjske dobe izbranih lesnih kompozitov, ki se najpogosteje uporabljajo na prostem vendar ne v stiku z zemljo. Ker se zavedamo, da so težave povezane z vlažnostjo, eden izmed najpomembnejših dejavnikov, ki vplivajo na delovanje lesa in lesnih kompozitov, bomo kompozite nadgradili z novo generacijo hidrofobnih sistemov: TiO2 nanodelci, silani, Sol gel postopek, vosek, nanocelulozni premazi, komercialni premazi za les ... Različni kompoziti bodo izpostavljeni naravnemu in umetno pospešenemu staranju. Po vnaprej določenih obdobjih izpostavljenosti, bomo vzorce izolirali in določili njihove mehanske lastnosti, glivno kolonizacija, lastnosti lepilnega spoja ... Poleg tega bomo kontinuirano spremljali stanje kompozitov skozi celotno obdobje izpostavitve ... Spremljali bomo: vsebnost vlage, spremembe mehanskih lastnosti (neporušne tehnike), lezenje, dimenzijsko stabilnost ... Da bi zagotovili zanesljivost napovedovanja, bodo v raziskavo vključili še vzorce tekočih testov (okoli 5000 vzorcev). Glavni namen tega projekta je mogoče povzeti, kot: Razumevanje in optimizacija lastnosti lesnih kompozitov med terenskimi testiranji. Glavni namen je: Izboljšati odpornost lesnih kompozitov, še posebej dolgoročne odpornostne lastnosti (odpornost na glive, hidrofobnost, dimenzijsko stabilnost, lezenje…||ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2013/08/01||2016/07/31|
|L2-6769 Nanostrukture in njihovi kompoziti za zaznavanje nevarnih molekul v plinskem stanju||Predloženi projekt zaobsega raziskave 2D in 1D nanostruktur za zaznavo posebnih toksičnih in karcinogenih molekul, ki so pomembne v industrijski proizvodnji in kontroli kvalitete hrane. Raziskave so usmerjene v razvoj nove generacije cenovno ugodnih plinskih senzorjev, ki temeljijo na navpično poravnanih nanozidovih grafena ali povezanih mrežah ogljikovih nanocevk ali/in nanožic kovinskih oksidov. Uporabljene nanostrukture bodo večinoma sintetizirane s plazmami. Sintetizirane nanostrukture bomo nadgradili z vezavo različnih nanodelcev in polimerov ali vezavo v polimerno matriko. S tem želimo izboljšati občutljivost na posamezne pline. Zaznavo in selektivnost za plinske molekule bomo povečali tudi s substitucijami atomo-po-atom v kristalnih mrežah nanostruktur s pomočjo plazemskih površinskih procesov. Tako pripravljene strukture in detekcijske elemente bomo uporabili za detekcijo ogljikovodikovih molekul od heksana do dodekana (pa tudi toluena) in polarnih molekul DMF (Dimetil formamida), HMPA (Heksametil fosfor-amida) in DMSO (Dimetil žveplov-oksida), akrilamida in različnih aminov. Določili bomo osnovne mehanizme za zaznavo molekul in razvili nove senzorje na osnovi meritev električnih karakteristik ali barvnih senzorskih talonov.
||ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2014/07/01||2017/06/30|
|L2-4304 Modifikacija površine TiO2 nanodelcev: preprečevanje aglomeracije in ohranitev intrinsične funkcionalnosti||Titanov dioksid je strateški material, ki se pospešeno uveljavlja na različnih področjih, kot so barve in laki vseh vrst, umetne mase, papir, guma, keramika, varilne elektrode, embalaža, zdravila, zobne paste itd. Na različne funkcionalne lastnosti TiO2 (sipalna moč, absorpcijske, adsorpcijske, fotokatalitske ipd). pa izjemno vpliva to, kako je TiO2 strukturiran na nanoskali. Optimalno nanostrukturiranost je v večini primerov zelo težko doseči, delno nastopi problem že pri izhodiščnih nanodelcih, ki imajo veliko tendenco k aglomeraciji. Še večji problemi nastopijo pri kasnejšem procesiranju, torej pred, med in po površinski obdelavi ter vgradnji odelanih TiO2 delcev v končni produkt. Interakcija med nanodelci in drugimi fazami namreč najpogosteje vodi do močne aglomeracije nanodelcev TiO2, kar povzroči delno ali celotno izgubo funkcionalnosti končnega produkta.
Obstajajo različni pristopi k reševanju problema aglomeracije TiO2. Pristopi so prilagojeni želenim lastnostim končnih produktov. S stališča uporabnikov pa bi bilo precej bolj smiselno, da pripravimo izhodiščni TiO2 material, ki bo uporaben za čim več različnih aplikacij.
Glavni cilj projekta je torej razviti popolnoma nov postopek modifikacije TiO2 pigmentov z izdelavo pametnih multifunkcionalnih nanoprevlek okoli vsakega posameznega nanodelca pigmenta. Pri tem je ključnega pomena, da bo lastnost površine tako modificiranih pigmentov definiral načrtno sprožen zunanji dejavnik (pH vrednost, temperatura ipd.). Novi koncept bomo posebej podrobno razdelali ob reševanju problema zaščite nanodimenzijskih delcev TiO2. Pametne multifunkcionalne prevleke na površini delcev TiO2 bomo pripravili s pomočjo alifatskih polielektrolitov, to je takih, ki imajo na osnovno verigo vezane različno nabite funkcionalne skupine. Različna pH vrednost bo sprožila delovanje enih ali drugih funkcionalnih skupin, s čimer bo površina TiO2 postala bodisi pozitivno ali negativno nabita v odvisnosti od pH medija. Tako površinsko obdelan TiO2 se bo lahko uporabljal v različnih aplikacijah, saj bo značaj površine odvisen le od pH medija, v katerega bomo tako pripravljen TiO2 vgradili.
Projekt je razdeljen na tri sklope, in sicer »Razvoj in karakterizacija pametnih multifunkcionalnih nanoprevlek na površini pigmentnih delcev TiO2«, »Razvoj postopka za krojenje povšinskih lastnosti pigmentnih delcev na željo uporabnika« ter »Priprava in karakterizacija realnih premazov z razvitimi modificiranimi pigmenti in demonstracija novih premazov«.
Navedene sklope bomo izvajali preko sodelovanja naslednjih partnerjev v projektu: raziskovalne organizacije Kemijski inštitut (KI), Inštitut Jožef Stefan (IJS), Zavod za gradbeništvo Slovenije (ZAG), in gospodarski družbi Cinkarna Celje d.d. in TRC JUB d.o.o., ki bosta tudi sofinancerja in končna uporabnika razvitih izdelkov.
Gre za aplikativni projekt, z jasno zastavljenimi cilji, ki naj izboljšajo konkretne izdelke. Vendar se v projektu ne zadovoljimo z izboljšavo obstoječih izdelkov, ampak želimo radikalno spremeniti sedanji koncept priprave TiO2 delcev, ki se uporabljajo v različnih aplikacijah. Gre za visokotehnološki produkt (top-down nanotehnologija) z veliko stopnjo dodane vrednosti. Uspešna izvedba bi pomenila, da oba industrijska partnerja še učvrstita svoj položaj – ne le na slovenskem, ampak predvsem na svetovnem trgu.
|ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2011/07/01||2014/06/30|
|L6-4217 Raziskave novih metodologij za konserviranje / restavriranje baročnih slik na platnu||Obdobje baročnega slikarstva na slovenskem zajema tako nacionalno pomembne avtorje, kakor tudi avtorje pomembne v svetovnem merilu, kot so npr. Metzinger, Tintoretto, Liberi, in Rossini. Baročne slike na platnu kažejo, predvsem zaradi neprimernih pogojev hranjenja (nihanja temperature in relativne vlage, UV sevanja), svojevrstne neželene učinke staranja. Na originalnih slojih slik so se že v preteklih stoletjih pokazali procesi degradacije, kar je moč razbrati iz arhivskih zapisov o restavratorskih posegih. V današnjem času imamo tako opravka s kompleksnimi barvnimi sistemi, ki kažejo degradirane ali delno degradirane originalne sloje, kakor tudi v večini primerov degradirane sloje prejšnjih neprimernih restavratorskih posegov. Konserviranje – restavriranje teh umetnin zato predstavlja velik izziv in zahteva analitičen pristop k reševanju problemov: določitev materialov za čiščenje, utrjevanje, stabilizacijo originalnih barvnih slojev, odstranjevanje materialov prejšnjih neprimernih posegov ter določitev primernih materialov za retušo in zaščito. Predpogoj za izpolnitev teh nalog je natančna identifikacija vseh prisotnih materialov kakor tudi določitev procesov njihove degradacije. Po naših izkušnjah in izkušnjah inštitucij pomembnih v svetovnem merilu (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute, Washington DC, CNR-ISTM-University of Peruggia, Italy, Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, CA, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hildesheim, Germany,…) predstavljajo materiali na osnovi proteinov (jajčne, kazeinske tempere, klejni grundi, beljakov lak…), kakor tudi tradicionalni organski pigmenti, svojevrsten problem že pri sami identifikaciji. V našem laboratoriju smo zato že začeli uvajati nove metode identifikacije proteinov na osnovi imunoloških raziskav, ki pa jih je potrebno nadgraditi predvsem z vidika izboljšanja postopkov ekstrakcije proteinov iz kompleksnih mikro vzorcev. Cilji: a.) umetnostnozgodovinsko raziskati historiat restavratorskih posegov v preteklosti b.) določiti paleto materialov (pigmenti, veziva, zaščitni sloji, grundi…) značilnih za baročno slikarstvo na slovenskem na primerih slikarskih del Metzingerja, Tintoretta, Liberija in Rossinija.; c.) določiti procese razgradnje teh materialov pod vplivi pospešenega staranja modelnih vzorcev; d.) na osnovi rezultatov a.), b.) in c.) določiti primerne konservatorsko – restavratorske materiale in tehnologije, to je razviti nove konservatorsko-restavratorske smernice za baročno slikarstvo; e.) nadgraditi razvoj imunoloških raziskav za proteinske mikro vzorce in preveriti rezultate z metodo LC-MS-MS (tekočinska kromatografija s tandemsko masno spektrometrijo); f.) izboljšati postopek identifikacije tradicionalnih organskih pigmentov; in g.) razviti tržne produkte za hitro, zanesljivo in natančno identifikacijo proteinov ter paleto materialov primernih za restavriranje baročnih slik na platnu.
Projekt je bistvenega pomena za ohranjanje slovenske kulturne dediščine na področju baročnega slikarstva. Razvoj novih konservatorsko – restavratorskih smernic za ohranjanje baročnih slik na platnu bo bistveno olajšalo pristope k restavriranju in izboljšalo trajnost teh umetnin. Višja kakovost restavratorskih posegov med drugim tudi podaljša čas do naslednjega posega in tako dolgoročno znižuje stroške ohranjanja kulturne dediščine. Z določitvijo palete originalnih materialov bo izredno olajšana identifikacija ponaredkov, kar je bistvenega nacionalnega pomena. Razvoj metod za imunološko identifikacijo proteinskih materialov (grundi, barvni sloji, zaščitni sloji), izboljšanje postopka za identifikacijo tradicionalnih organskih pigmentov in znanje o procesih, ki se dogajajo v kompleksnih barvnih sistemih, bo izreden doprinos k znanosti v svetovnem merilu. Razvoj novih tržnih produktov bo odprl novo tržno nišo in pripomogel h konkurenčni prednosti dveh projektnih partnerjev.
|ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2011/07/01||2014/06/30|
|L2-2373 Funkcionalizacija površine organskih pigmentov za trajne, učinkovite in barvno obstojne premaze||ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2009/05/01||2012/04/30|
|L2-2204 Superhidrofilnost površin in njihova uporaba v tehnoloških postopkih za industrijsko proizvodnjo||ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2009/05/01||2012/04/30|
|L2-1129 Razvoj fotokatalitskih prevlek in plinskih fotoreaktorjev za določanje učinkovitosti prevlek pri čiščenju zraka in samočiščenju||ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2008/02/01||2011/01/30|
|M1-0110 Analiza, modeliranje in optimizacija skladišča eksplozivnih sredstev||ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2006/06/01||2008/05/31|
|M2-0106 Samočistilni fotokatalitski premazi in prevleke||ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2006/06/01||2008/05/31|
|L4-7547 Obnašanje lesa in lignoceluloznih kompozitov v zunanjih pogojih||http://www.sicris.si/public/jqm/prj.aspx?lang=slv&opdescr=search&opt=2&subopt=400&code1=cmn&code2=auto&psize=1&hits=1&page=1&count=&search_term=12521&id=10066&slng=&order_by=||ARRS||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2016/03/01||2019/02/28|
|J2-9197 Synthesis and characterization of alkali activated foams based on different waste||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/j2-9197||Alkali-activated materials, also called geopolymers, are an environmentally friendly and technically acceptable alternative to cement, concrete, and ceramics. In order to produce AAM, precursors containing (i) SiO2 and Al2O3 in sufficient quantities and in a reactive form-glassy state (e.g. ash, activated clay), and (ii) alkaline activators in a solution (mostly NaOH, KOH, Na-water glass, K-water glass) are needed. When these two components are mixed, firstly, the dissolution and transport of the components (Al, Si) in the alkaline activators takes place, and then, through poly-condensation of the Al and Si, an aluminosilicate network is formed, which can be amorphous or partially crystallized.
Suitable precursors for AAM are thermally activated clay, natural pozzolan (e.g. volcanic ash), as well as different kinds of industrial waste, such as ashes (fly ash, bottom ash, bio-based ashes) and various slags. Many products can be obtained by the alkaline activation process which could replace traditional construction products. They range from blocks, slabs, paving-stones, curbs, and partitions, to refractory materials and materials for specific industrial applications (e.g. insulation plates).
Foams, which are produced when appropriate foaming agents are added to an alkaline activated sludge, are one of the most promising types of alkali-activated materials due to potentially higher added value. Such foams are non-combustible and dimensionally stable, and have high strength and good insulation properties.
The main objective of this project is to develop new lightweight alkali-activated foams based on the mixture of various secondary raw materials (fly ash, slag and waste glass). Different foaming agents and stabilising agents (in varying proportions) will then be investigated in order to achieve the highest possible porosity (Al powder, H2O2, NaOCl, SDS). In addition to the use of waste materials, the additional advantage of such foams (in comparison to commercially available inorganic foams) will be that they will be produced at temperatures lower than 100 °C, and they will be stable also at elevated temperatures (expected up to 1000 °C).
To achieve these goals, focus of project will be on:
- identification of local waste flows to be used in alkali activated production,
- selection of proper combinations of solid waste precursors and alkaline activators by DOE (Design Of Experiment) approach to obtain optimal characteristics,
- finding of optimal foaming agents and foam stabilizing agents in order to obtain highly porous structure,
- characterization of foams at room temperature and at elevated temperature (up to 1000 °C),
- quantification of the environmental footprint of the new technology and products by life cycle assessment (LCA).
Project is divided into six work packages related to the specific goals of the project, and it will be performed by ZAG –Department of Materials and IJS - Department of Advanced Materials. Both groups are already highly experienced in the preparation and quantification of foamed materials of different origins.
The acquired knowledge will provide the basis for the development of various new products by using precursors that are currently landfilled and potentially harmful to the environment. Furthermore, new interdisciplinary knowledge, combining technical properties with environmental aspects will be obtained for the designing of alkali activated materials from different precursors (fly ash, slag, glass).
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute
Jožef Stefan Institute
Financing: Slovenian Research Agency
2018: 0,67 FTE (D), 2019 1,34 FTE (D)
Link on SICRIS
|SRA - Slovenian Research Agency||Vilma Ducman||2018/07/01||2021/06/30|
|Mineralization of wood by soluble carbonate based compounds for improved essential properties Z4-9298||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/z4-9298||Due to its unique properties wood is considered an important sustainable material. Unfortunately, it is flammable and susceptible to degradation by a wide variety of microorganisms, water and ultraviolet radiation. To improve wood’s reaction to fire, many approaches have been proposed so far, including addition of fire-retardants, deposition of flame retardant coatings or the development of wood composites. When burning some fire retardants release toxic and carcinogenic substances. Therefore their use is progressively restricted and prohibited which opens new opportunities for development of non-toxic and "eco-friendly" alternatives. A promising direction is mineralization of wood by incorporation of metal carbonates or hydroxides. Upon their endothermic decomposition non-flammable gases, CO2 and H2O, are released, which leads to dilution and cooling of flammable combustion products. Recently two promising procedures for incorporation of CaCO3 into the wood structure have been proposed. The first is based on a solid-exchange process by alternating solution-exchange cycles with CaCl2 in ethanol and NaHCO3 in water and second on alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl carbonate in the presence of calcium ions inside the cell wall structure. The main disadvantage of both methods is that they are time consuming and involve formation of harmful by-products, such as NaCl and methanol. The former causes corrosion of metal objects, which are often incorporated in wood, while the latter is harmful to the environment.
In the present project we will develop a new method for integrating carbonates (CaCO3, MgCO3 and SrCO3) and hydroxide (Al(OH)3) into the wood structure based on deep impregnation with soluble organic compounds in order to improve wood’s reaction to fire and durability. The principle is based on the decomposition of soluble organic compounds in the wood structure in the presence of water into carbonate/s or hydroxide with no harmful by-products. The proposed method signifies a simple, ecologically friendly and more effective mineralization of wood in a comparison to the traditional incorporation of carbonates. The main objective of the project is to obtain and deepen the knowledge about wood mineralization procedures. In particular we will evaluate the effect of proposed mineralization process on essential properties of wood, mainly its reaction to fire and determine the mechanisms of action of incorporated carbonates and hydroxides. A combination of vacuum and pressure will be used for wood impregnation. For selected wood species, i.e. spruce and beech, we will determine: (i) the optimal impregnation parameters for deep penetration and high retention of impregnation solution, (ii) optimal drying mode of impregnated wood samples and (iii) the optimal impregnation formulation. The evaluation of suitability of proposed impregnation formulation/s regarding efficiency and toxicity will be evaluated as well. For evaluation of the wood mineralization advanced research equipment will be used, such as TG/DTA coupled with GC-MS, SEM, FE-SEM, µCT, FTIR, XRD, gas sorption, cone calorimetry, etc.
Post-doc research project
Financing: Slovenian Research Agency, SRA
2018 0,5 FTE (B), 2019 1 FTE (B), 2020 0,5 FTE (B)
Link to SICRIS
|WOOLF - Wood and wood products over lifetime||http://www.eu-skladi.si/||R&D project WOOLF (Wood and wood products over lifetime) is based on the development of products and advanced technologies that will enable the use of standard and alternative non-invasive wood species and waste wood, prediction of the service lifetime of wood and wood products, their intelligent management and operation, and multi-storey modular wooden constructions. The aim of the multidisciplinary consortium with 4 industrial and 4 research organizations is to link the entire forest-wood chain and develop 4 final prototypes of products and services that combine into a final wooden modular building.
1. IoT sensor units WOrMS represent a system for monitoring the properties of wood that will be connected to the central unit by using wireless connections, which will be connected to the cloud with all the necessary infrastructure via the internet connection.
2. Intelligent ICT management system for wood structures bIOMASS is an advanced ICT cloud system that will allow flexible and efficient installation in public or private cloud. Its goal is to provide a comprehensive, expandable system that is compatible with the well-established IoT standards and which is specifically adapted to the domain of management of wooden structures.
3. Intelligently connected wooden windows system ICON represents windows made of selected wood species or waste wood, which is upgraded with WOrMS units and is an intelligent system capable of monitoring and predicting product life-time in combination with bIOMASS system.
4. The alternative lignocellulosic construction assembly ALLWOOD WALL presents hybrid load-bearing construction assemblies that will combine wood and steel with an aim to build modularly designed buildings with at least three floors and will be equipped with WOrMS units.
Project WOOLF is relevant for the priority area of the Smart buildings and homes, including wood chain and subarea Wood and wood chain.
|MIZŠ SPS RRI||Friderik Knez||2018/12/01||2021/11/30|
|Recycling of waste titanogypsun in cement composites||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/z1-1858||The large quantities of different synthetic gypsums represent a global economic and environmental problem. Numerous different types of industrial residues have been routinely recycled in the construction sector, but in the case of waste industrial gypsum this practice has not been widely implemented, since it has a low recycling potential due to its specific chemical and physical properties. The recycling of red titanogypsum in cementitious composites requires knowledge of its properties, in particular about the hydration mechanism, the development of phase composition, and the microstructure.
Gypsum is on one hand an essential ingredient in the production of cement composites, but on the other hand the increased amount of gypsum used in the preparation of cement composites can be reflected in the in the lower mechanical properties. Two theories have been presented to link ettringite formation in systems containing a high quantity of gypsum (so-called over-sulphated systems) with expansion. However, there is a lack of experimental evidence which could directly link the observed expansion to the formation of ettringite. The results of some analyses have also shown that the amount of ettringite and expansion varies widely between systems with different alumina containing compounds.
Since in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms and kinetics of the hydration process, the sequence of formation and identification of the mineral phases formed, together with time dependent chemical and mechanical properties of the composites, is crucial in order to develop cement composites containing high quantities of red titanogypsum (in combination with some additional industrial waste), realization of this project will contribute significantly towards the characterization of described systems. The realization of proposed research work will enable to define the fundamentals based on which the behaviour of the proposed two- and three-component cement systems, as well as similar systems, could be predicted. Further, the effects of increased amounts of formed ettringite on the potential destructive mechanisms will be explained on the phenomenological level.
The methodology will be based on a broad range of complementary methods.
Cement composites described in the project proposal will promote the development of a lowcarbon and circular economy, based on the usage of lower amounts of cement and local renewable materials. The proposed program consists of a central node for various topics and fields, which will make it possible to assess the new knowledge particularly in the field of geology (mineralogy, petrography) and also in the fields of chemistry, materials and construction.
|Slovenian Research Agency||Vesna Zalar Serjun||2019/07/01||2021/06/30|
|Influence of geotechnical fills from recycled materials on groundwater||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/l1-9190||Industry produces large quantities of residues (waste materials and by-products), which are potentially suitable for beneficial use, for example as recycled materials in geotechnical applications as a substitute for natural raw materials. The prerequisite for the beneficial use of residues is their environmental acceptability and their technical adequacy. However, compared to natural raw materials, recycled materials can have a higher content of potential toxic contaminants, which can be inorganic or organic. This may present a limiting factor for the use of such materials, due to the potential release of the contaminants when the material comes into contact with water.
In the case of the production of geotechnical composites based on recycled materials, it is possible to produce chemical inert materials in which potentially toxic contaminants are effectively immobilized. Such composites can especially be used as geotechnical fill. However, one of the main concerns about the use of such new composites still refers to insufficient knowledge about their environmental properties, so that the leaching behaviour of such composites needs to be investigated thoroughly.
One of main objectives of the study is to investigate the storage and transport of contaminants which can be potentially released from three selected new composites (based on the use of recycled industrial and combustion residues, as well as of recycled sludge) that are produced and placed by TERMIT and HARSCO, and used as geotechnical fills. Investigated composites have different leaching potentials. Since the release of potentially toxic substances is difficult to monitor (the transport processes are still insufficiently explained), this research presents a challenge from both the scientific point of view, and the development perspective. Nowadays, there is also an increasing demand for development of sensitive, reliable, and cost and time effective monitoring tools for the detection of anthropogenic contaminants in subsoil and groundwater. This gap is aimed to be fulfilled within proposed project.
Three types of composites based on various recycled materials will be installed in the pilot testing laboratory (i.e. this will be located in the area owned by TERMIT). The materials which are relatively abundant, relatively difficult to recycle, and some of them involve components which are difficult to immobilize will be chosen. Part of the composites will be installed in the form of compacted layers and part in the form of non-compacted layers. In the latter case, less favourable conditions related to the higher permeability of the composite to infiltrating water (resulting in higher leaching potential) will be simulated. Leachates will be collected by means of lysimeters in order to study potential emissions of released contaminants. Passive samplers will also be used to determine the contaminants in the subsoil and groundwater.
The proposed project has following goals:
|Slovenian Research Agency||Janez Turk||2018/07/01||2021/06/30|
|Potresno obnašanje stavb zgrajenih iz zidakov LiaSTAR||Lafarge, ARRS||Matija Gams||2016/01/01||2016/12/31|
|Development of recycled 3D printing powders for the formation of porous mesostructured insulation materials, Z2-1861||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/z2-1861||3D printing (layering or additive manufacturing-AM) is a rapidly expanding research field in material science, which offers almost unimaginable opportunities in the development of advanced materials. The 3D process ranges from mechanical engineering (e.g. in the fields of prosthetics, the automotive and aeronautical industry, etc.), to the building and civil engineering sector (house skeletons, facade panels etc.). In fact this innovative technology provides a cutting-edge approach and high precision solution for the formation of high‑performance powder based materials. The progress of 3D structures with feature sizes in the mesoscopic range is of ever increasing interest, and is driven by the demand to create materials with the functional properties and characteristics of final products made by using 3D printing technology. In order to achieve a mesostructured material, significant understanding of the newly designed 3D product forms, from mm to nano scale, is needed. Also a sufficient level of knowledge about mechanical, physical, thermal and/or acoustic properties is of the greatest importance, for clearly‑defined uses and applications. The advantages of 3D printing technologies are in terms of high product added value, because of low costs and high production capability of the manufacturing production of the final product, as well as being environmentally‑friendly, generating little to no waste material. In recent years research work in the field of 3D printing has been very intense on a global scale, but at a national level, a need has been identified for the determining of suitable combinations of materials in order to serve as raw materials for the 3D printing of construction products. The above locally available raw materials would present a more acceptable solution in terms of price and protection of the environment.
The main objective of the proposed research is the development of powders for 3D-printing. In this research, droplet application or binder injection e.g. binder jetting, will be used as the additive technique for the preparation of porous insulation materials. Taking this into account, our research will be focused on three main objectives. In the first part of research, the powder properties and its compatibility with a suitable 3D technology (binding mechanisms of binder jetting) will be investigated. The powder material will be based on calcium sulphate and related hydrates, obtained from different Slovenian industrial by‑processes. Additionally, an investigation of the technology process parameters on the material’s inner geometry will be performed. The second part of research will be focused on the computer‑aided design (CAD) modelling of porous structures, and their properties will be compared with commercially available and already‑made laboratory products for insulation purposes. Base models will be designed in order to provide a mechanical and structural template for a new porous structure. Upgraded models will then be designed with accurate 3D shape and initial internal structure in terms of mesoporous‑interconnected porosity in order to promote, for example, thermal conductivity. Various 2D and 3D microscopy methods and mechanical tests will be employed to adequately characterize the commercial lightweight samples and the newly‑created 3D‑printed prototypes. During the last part of the research the focus will be shifted from “improved laboratory production” to the actual production of large components.
This project is well aligned with the following objectives and will contribute to: (i) the providing a sustainable supply of raw materials through 3D printing innovations in the field of industrial gypsum recycling, (ii) promoting a greater environmental responsibility and presenting innovative solutions for the management and sustainable destination of used waste recovery, (iii) designing solutions for 3D printing by supplying raw materials for more durable products, (iv) avoiding landfilling, and (v) reducing the costs of prototype development in 3D printing.
|Slovenian research Agency||Lidija Korat||2019/07/01||2021/06/30|
|Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the purpose of remediation of heavily contaminated industrial and municipal wastewater, Z1 – 1889||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/z1-1889||Electrocoagulation is a scientifically proven effective procedure for the treatment of contaminated waste water (for example, industrial wastewater or leachate from municipal landfill sites), which is not yet widely used. The electrocoagulation procedure is roughly based on the use of an electrochemical cell with electrodes, which can be made from aluminium and / or iron. During the electrocoagulation process, a suspension of particles with bound contaminants is destabilized due to a change in their total surface charge (zeta potential) to the isoelectric point, leading to adhesion - coagulation. At the same time, the anodic corrosion process is occurring, which releases Al or Fe ions into the contaminated water (depending on the composition of electrodes), which constitute the coagulation agent. This leads to complex chemical interactions between pollutants and released coagulant ions (oxidation, co-precipitation and coagulation, surface sorption, incorporation into insoluble minerals - hydroxides, advanced oxidation processes ...), which leads to purification of water.
The project addresses the problem of management of contaminated industrial and municipal waste water, which represents an environmental problem, because it causes the impoverishment of drinking water resources in terms of quality and quantity The current state of the art allows many possibilities for research and development to optimize this highly promising method. This is possible through the following innovative approaches to be used within the project: a) improvement of the design of the electrochemical cell, b) new combinations with complementary methods for the treatment of waste water, c) the use of nanotechnology, d) improving the separation of floccules from purified water using various granular materials, including industrial recycled materials. An optimized electrocoagulation process will be the basis for the development of a multistage cleaning process for recycling waste water.
The main objective of the project is to investigate the chemical and physical mechanisms of cleaning of heavily contaminated water (the case of waste water from industry, leachates from a municipal landfill site, and municipal waste water) with the EC process and to optimize based it based on the use of real water samples. Experimental work on real water matrices will help optimize the EC process for real-case uses.
Within the project, the following basic objectives have been established:
- construction of a test laboratory electrochemical cell and optimization of its design;
- optimization of the basic operational parameters of the EC process (pH, T, reaction time, electrode composition and distance between them, electric current density) for cleaning the real samples of contaminated water predicted within the scope of the project,
- upgrading of the EC process with advanced approaches and materials;
- upgrading of the optimized EC process with additional complementary alternative water treatment (filtration) processes in order to achieve the quality of water necessary for its recycling
|Slovenian research Agency and Deltaplan d.o.o.||Primož Oprčkal||2019/07/01||2021/06/30|
|Implementation of additive technologies in prosthodontics L2-1831||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/l2-1831||When restoring endodontically treated teeth with the lack of the sufficient coronal dental tissue, the post-cores are used to replace missing coronal tooth structure for support and retention for prosthodontic restoration. Custom cast metal post and cores have been used for such restoration, or as an alternative prefabricated post with coronal built-ups are being used. With digitalization of dentistry new possibilities of prosthodontic restorations came into consideration. Different computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) methods were introduced and are nowadays used. Additive manufacturing methods are emerging fast into the clinical dental practice in the last few years. However, there is a great need for detailed understanding of physical properties in relation to technological parameters in one hand and clinical practice on the other hand.
The main goal of the project is to (study) compare traditional and modern methods for producing posts and cores with detailed study on physical, mechanical and microstructural properties that influence the clinical experience (preparation, restoration, patient’s response). The second goal is to tailor suitable 3D printed post and core/cement interface for the best possible clinical practice.
The investigated properties of the studied post and-core objects will be mechanical, physical, chemical, corrosion and metallographic. The mechanical properties that are aimed to study are: tensile strength, residual stresses and fatigue performance. Metallographic investigation will include the study of the size and distribution of microstructural grains within dental material and at the surface, the interface surface/cement. A line and mapping EDS, including EBSD and TEM, analysis over cross-section will be conducted in order to define intermetallic phases. X-Ray computed microtomography will be also used in the study to investigate the 3-dimensional structure of studied materials. By means of this method, the voids, imperfections and other characteristics will be observed on micro-meter level. Hardness will be studied in relation to microstructural properties. Electrochemical tests on the dental materials will be included in the study to get information on the corrosion properties when exposed to corrosive saliva. The susceptibility to local type of corrosion will be evaluated. Moreover, spectroscopic studies will be used in the study, such as X-Ray photo electron spectroscopy, Raman and XRD spectroscopy, in order to understand the structure of the passive layers, to define the possible increase of the corrosion sensitivity and to define the properties of the surface of the dental materials.
The project will contribute to the improvement of the knowledge on dental materials in the field modern additive manufacturing field. This knowledge on current material properties is of a high importance, not only for the enhanced treatment of the patient but also for general improvements in the dental practice, as well as industry.
FLEGIS trgovsko, storitveno in gostinsko podjetje, d.o.o.,
AO EAST EUROPE Spolka z organiczona odpowiedzialnoscia S.K.,
MD-RI INŠTITUT ZA RAZISKAVE MATERIALOV V MEDICINI, LJUBLJANA,
ITMEDIKA PRODAJA IN SERVIS, IGOR TODOROVIĆ S.P.,
DENTALIA Zunanjetrgovsko podjetje, proizvodnja in storitve, d.o.o., Ljubljana,
DentaGo, posredništvo in trgovina, d.o.o.,
DENTAS, izdelovanje strojev in pripomočkov za dentalno tehniko d.o.o.,
PRODENT INTERNATIONAL, Trgovina z zobozdravstvenimi in medicinskimi proizvodi, d.o.o.
|Slovenian research Agency and co-financers||Tadeja Kosec||2019/07/01||2022/06/30|
|TIMBER COMPOSITE GIRDERS MADE OF RESIDUAL WASTE MATERIALS OBTAINED IN PREFABRICATION OF TIMBER HOUSES||www.eu-skladi.si||The project was selected in the “Researchers at the start of their careers 2.1” call
Contact: Meta Kržan, Tomaž Pazlar
Private company: Jelovica hiše d.o.o.
Modern architectural design of prefabricated timber buildings increasingly comprises of wide open spaces in the ground floors with limited support elements, large wall openings and sometimes of large span cantilevers. In these cases, due to the large static heights needed in case of wooden girders, they are usually replaced by steel girders. With production of light frame timber prefabricated buildings, the manufacturer first lengthwise tailors solid or glue laminated timber from which a frame is assembled. To ensure the load-bearing capacity and rigidity, the frame is sheathed with various types of wood-based or gypsum fibre boards. A substantial amount of residual waste is created with cutting of sheathing boards that cannot further be used in the regular production of wall and floor structural elements.
The proposed research project aims to overcome the exposed issues in the production of prefabricated timber buildings and to develop the concept of using waste boards for the prefabrication of timber composite girders, which could in some cases replace commonly used steel girders. The basic concept of the proposed solution is a (box) composite girder constructed of solid timber flanges and webs made of waste sheathing boards which result from the manufacturing process of prefabricated timber buildings of the partner company; i.e. oriented strand boards, cement-particle boards or gypsum-fibre boards.
The outline of the research project is a comprehensive design and evaluation of composite girders, taking into account all the basic requirements for construction products relevant for the intended use, with an emphasis on mechanical resistance and stability, fire safety and the sustainable use of materials. Furthermore, the design concept will also take into account the limitations of the company’s manufacturing process technology as well as its financial aspects. The R&D work will be iterative: the design of the girders will be optimized by conducting experimental investigations and numerical analyses, whereas the selected solutions will be properly validated upon completion of the project.
The end result of the project will be the numerically and experimentally supported concept of the design and of the prefabrication process of timber composite girders made of waste boards for bridging larger spans (TRL 5 - 6).
|European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of Education, Science and Sport through EU Cohesion Policy 2014-2020||Meta Kržan||2019/04/01||2022/03/31|
|SCIENTIFIC AND ARTISTIC POTENTIALS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TOURIST PRODUCTS OF THE SITARJEVEC MINE||www.eu-skladi.si||The project was selected in the “Researchers at the start of their careers 2.1” call
Contact: Darja Rant, Mateja Golež
Private company: Predilnica Litija d.o.o.
The Sitarjevec Mine is a natural value of national importance. Municipality of Litia opened the Mine for the tourist purposes at the end of the year 2017. Good practices in the field of tourism have been obtained so far through domestic and international projects carried out by the Municipality of Litia and other local institutions in cooperation with external partners, including Slovenian national building and civil engineering institute (ZAG). They show that its great tourist potential is almost untapped and the local community is keen on developing a comprehensive tourism product.
The Sitarjevec Mine is characterized by an extremely strong yellow color that gives it recognition among the mines in Slovenia and abroad. The coloration of the tunnels is the result of the formation of mine sludge, which is also a waste material in the process of mine cleaning for the purpose of adventure tourism. The proposed research project is focused on the design of products intended for tourist workers, especially mine guides, and tourists. They will need protective clothing to visit the tunnels and at the same time they will be offered to preserve some of the new experiences by purchasing products related to the mine's story. Prior research has found possible applications of mine sludge and water in the textile and art area. Yellow mine mud is a source of natural pigment for painters. Colored minewater in combination with natural plant dyes is good replacement for mordants, which are normally used when dyeing textiles with natural dyes.
Pigment obtained from mine sludge will be prepared for use for textile purposes by appropriate procedures. An important part of this project is the characterization of the pigment and the preparation and testing of textile prints with natural pigment. Natural dried pigment changes color from yellow to red when exposed to high temperature. Different temperatures allow different shades of red. In combination with various printing pastes, many color shades can be obtained. The Litia Spinnery as a leading economic entity in Litia and an important part of the local community will enable testing various textile substrates for pigment printing. On the basis of the natural and cultural heritage of the Sitarjevec Mine new textile products printed with natural pigments from the mine will be created. The designed and manufactured tourist products will contribute to the overall image of the Sitarjevec Mine as a key point of new tourist place on the Slovenian map. They will also improve the recognition of this tourist destination.
|European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of Education, Science and Sport through EU Cohesion Policy 2014-2020||Darja Rant||2019/04/01||2022/03/31|
|L7-2629 EVALUATION AND REMEDIATION OF SEDIMENTS FOR FURTHER USE IN BUILDING SECTOR READY4USE||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/l7-2629||Sedimentation affects the safety of hydropower plant dams and reduces energy production, storage, discharge capacity, and flood attenuation capabilities. It increases loads on the dam and gates, damages mechanical equipment, and creates a wide range of environmental impacts. About 0.5 % to 1.0 % of the total water volume stored in reservoirs around the world is lost annually as a result of sedimentation. Without active management, the continual accumulation of sediments will gradually displace the storage volume in a reservoir, which will ultimately render the reservoirs useless for capturing and storing water. Additional environmental problems present sediment pollution with heavy metals, resulting from the mining industry in the past.
Slovenian Dravske Elektrarne Maribor d.o.o. (DEM), the company that operates eight hydropower plants on the Drava River, is facing sedimentation problems. Larger amount of sediment is annually accumulated in the hydro reservoirs, which need to be appropriate, handled. Because of the lack of space in the Drava valley for sludge deposition and newly imposed regulations, there is an urgent need for new solutions in sediment management.
Current treatment methods aiming to restore the normal function of contaminated sediment are similar to those used for soil and include physical, chemical, and biological methods. Another successful remediation method is solidification/stabilization, where heavy metal pollutants are physically encapsulated in a solid matrix. Encapsulation involves the mixing of the contaminated soils or sediments with other materials and producing building products such as geopolymers (alkali activated materials - AAMs), cement clinker, bricks, lightweight aggregates, concrete, etc. The contaminated soil/sediment becomes immobile and thus prevents contamination of the surrounding materials. Although a lot of research all over the world was already conducted in applying marine and river sediments in brick and AAMs, the River Drava sediments were not examined as a raw material yet. But given its known composition and continuous availability, this material is a perfect candidate as a major component for the manufacturing of sustainable final products.
The key objective of the proposed READY4USE project is to (i) develop a new procedure for removal of heavy metals from River Drava sediment and (ii) develop new building materials (bricks and AAMs) by using River Drava sediment raw material. Partners in the project consortium (i.e. Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology University of Ljubljana, and company Dravske Elektrarne Maribor) have devised a systematic work-plan consisting of R&D activities that will fully encompass the entire development procedure of the novel sediment remediation process and construction materials production, from design to the actual production of the prototype.
The main scientific contribution of the work will be in defining the most successful remediation processes of sediments by using new ecological friendly biosurfactants, and the design of optimal mixtures for brick and AAMs, where many parameters will need to be studied in order to define the most influential ones. These innovative processes and products will provide the knowledge, which will be applicable also to other waste holders worldwide.
All researched technologies will be beside technical parameters, assessed also from an environmental point of view by analysis of life cycle assessment (LCA), which will contribute to the interdisciplinarity of the READY4USE project.
|Slovenian Research Agency - SRA, Dravske elektrarne Maribor d.o.o.||Vilma Ducman||2020/09/01||2023/08/31|
|J1-2482 Effect of environmentally relevant nano- and micro-plastics on terrestrial invertebrates||In recent years, microplastics pollution has become one of the major public environmental concerns expressed throughout the globe. Although terrestrial environment is a substantial source and sink of microplastics pollution, there is still a lack of comparative knowledge regarding potential sublethal effects that nano- and micro-plastics (NMPs) may have on terrestrial organisms. The main objective of this project is to investigate the impact of environmentally relevant NMPs on terrestrial invertebrates. Environmental relevance will be considered in terms of tested plastic particles, which will be derived from relevant materials commonly found in agricultural soil, and by subjecting NMPs to environmental weathering. Nano- and microplastics will be milled from plastic source materials such as for example car tyres, agricultural plastic mulch and textiles. Terrestrial organisms with different ecological roles and soil niches will be studied: the woodlice Porcellio scaber, white earthworm Enchytraeus crypticus and mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. They will be exposed to NMPs via soil exposure and afterwards whole-organism endpoints such as the feeding rate, growth, energy reserves and survival will be followed. The ingestion, fragmentation and retention of microplastics in the gut will be investigated using light and electron microscopy. Immune-related parameters will be followed using spectrophotometric analysis and expression of selected immune-related genes. Proteome analysis of haemolymph will also be done to complement gene expression analysis interpretation as well as to elucidate antioxidant and detoxification processes. Knowledge regarding microplastics effects on terrestrial organisms will contribute to in-depth understanding of potential hazard posed by nano- and microplastics.
||Slovenian Research Agency - SRA||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2020/09/01||2023/08/31|
|Z2-2641 Crevice corrosion mechanisms on the steel-concrete interface||http://en.zag.si/si/projekti-zag/z2-2641||The steel-concrete interface is a complex layer consisting of many inhomogeneities and features, including cracks, crevices, slips, air voids and rust. All of these anomalies can contribute to the formation of crevice corrosion, which causes high localized corrosion rates, despite the generally favourable alkaline environment that initially develops during concrete hydration. Such conditions could prevail, especially at larger steel surfaces, as is the case of steel liners used in nuclear systems (barriers and containments). Extensive knowledge gaps and lack of experiences about these complex, potentially autocatalytic processes exist. Since steel surface in concrete cannot be directly accessed during exposure, comprehensive techniques are needed to monitor the evolution of steel corrosion in concrete. In this project, multiple novel and modified techniques will be used, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrical resistance probes and coupled multi-electrode array. The latter is an advanced technique used to measure corrosion of steel in concrete over space and time (spatio-temporal behaviour), and it is also able to effectively monitor initiation and propagation of crevice corrosion. We expect that the results of our research will contribute to basic understanding of the long-term evolution of corrosion processes in concrete. The indepth study of the mechanisms of crevice corrosion will contribute to the continued safety of steel-concrete containment structures.||Slovenian Research Agency - SRA||Miha Hren||2020/09/01||2022/08/31|
|J1-2477 Erozijski procesi na obalnih flišnih klifih z oceno tveganja||https://www.ntf.uni-lj.si/og/o-oddelku/raziskovalno-delo/raziskovalni-projekti/arrs-projekt-erozijski-procesi-na-obalnih-flisnih-klifih-z-oceno-tveganja/||Coastal cliffs in flysch represent steep and unstable slopes, prone to erosion, as flysch is composed of alternation of softer marlstones and harder sandstones. Consequently, it is difficult to characterize due to its heterogeneity. There are several processes acting on the cliff – most importantly the erosion, being results of precipitation and intense rainfall, also the influence of the sea by abrasion, tidal action and wave energy, and other factors as the wind and rockfall.
The scientific problem and goal of our project is the fact that systematical quantitative measurements of erosion and morphological changes of the cliff have not yet been performed. To understand the processes of cliff changes, all influencing factors should be quantified. With modern methods of geological mapping and geodetic methods (photogrammetric ranging, terrestrial laser scanning and satellite PSInSAR methods), we are able to determine the temporal and spatial changes of unstable regions very precisely.
A special challenge will be the quantification of risk assessment, which will be one of our main research topics and novelties. We would like to upgrade the methodology of risk assessment, presented by Rio & Gracia (2009) for the coastal cliffs. They have defined two factors; the Hazard Index and Impact Index, which combine into the Risk Index. We chose this approach as all influencing factors are quantified, and we will improve their methodology by using additional parameters, such as fracture orientation and spacing, plus the physically measured erosion rates.
Another contribution will be also the study of sapping effects, as softer marlstone layers are eroded more quickly than harder sandstone beds, resulting in sapping (undermining) the more resistant layers above, leading to dangerous rockfalls. Relationships between the fracture spacing and bed thickness have been investigated, however sapping remains underinvestigated. Final novelty will be the integration of all methods, with also the practical aim of testing their applicability.
Described processes have also a socio-economic impact. Very problematic is a large number of visitors all year-round and numerous bathers during the summer, which walk and lie directly at the base of cliffs. Another problem pose the residential buildings, built very close to the cliff edge, and some terraces have already been undermined.
|Slovenian Research Agency - SRA||Karmen Fifer Bizjak||2020/09/01||2023/08/31|
|V2-1740, Development of innovative railway threshold||http://fgserver6.fg.um.si/kgm/||Railway sleeper along with rails, rail pads and fastening system represents an integral part of railway superstructure which is crucial for transfer of loads from rails to sleepers and substructure. There are various versions of railway sleepers such as wooden, concrete (mono block or twin block), steel (ordinary or Y shaped) and composite railway sleepers. Both types of sleepers have their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of wooden sleepers is simple manipulation and installation, greater elasticity compared to concrete sleepers and hence quieter driving. Among disadvantages are the demanding maintainace of track width, possibility of rotting, usage of ecologically equestionable substances for impregnation and the possibility of self-ignition due sparking as a consequence of breaking of the train composition. On the other side concrete sleepers are more weather and fire resistant, allow for a greater degree of adjustment relating to the actual load, and, because of their weigth, provide greater stability of the upper structure. Since concrete sleepers are more rigid, driving is louder, and for smaller radii, fracture is possible due to their fragility. Although wooden railway sleepers have many advantages and can in some cases reach or even exceed life span of concrete sleepers, they require more frequent maintenance, mainly due to the loosening of the fixing material.
In particular in case of concrete sleepers, the main problem arises in the contact area between sleeper and ballast track bed as a consequece of its poor quality. By dynamic loading, especially in curves, the ballast stones tend to crush resulting in the formation void under the central part of the sleeper.The ballast stones at the contact surface between the concrete sleepers and track bed are eventually formed into dust due to large dynamic loads, vibration and friction. Then due to the air humidity, powder solidifies and forms a kind of hardened mortar, which instead of the desired resilient substrate presents an undesirable rigid support for the above concrete sleeper. As a result, a reduction in the elasticity of the track substructure cause additional adverse vibrations, followed by deformations of the track itself and various damage of the concrete sleepers. The load distribution consequentlly changes. Under such conditions, the anticipated life span of concrete sleeper is considerably reduced. The phenomenon is specific by usage of lower quality of ballast such as dolomite or limestone, that is due to economic reasons typical for the Slovenian rail network and is more prononunced by concrete than wooden sleepers. The same problems occur on rigid surfaces where track bed is located on bedrock. Usually in this areas the thickness of the ballast track bed is small, resulting in damage of concrete sleepers. It is necessary to take into account that the damage can also occur in the maintenance works, when track bed has to be consolidated using the tamping technique.
There are several solutions in order to prevent the above mentioned problems. One possibility is to install elastomeric materials between the rail and the concrete sleeper. For this purpose various types of intermediate underlay rubber plates with different thickness and hardness have been developed. The usage of concrete sleepers with lower layer with pronounced elastic properties-e.g. rubber especially in the areas of switches and curves is also known. Both options reduce or completely eliminate the phenomena of crushing of ballast stones, second option in addition also increases the resistance against tranverse movements. One of solutions is usage of twin-block concrete sleepers with connecting reinforcement in central part, but it does not provide enough transverse resistance in curved parts of the railway track.
|J7-9404, Bronze monuments protection in a changing environment||https://www.zvkds.si/sl/arrs/arrs||Copper and bronze undergo spontaneous oxidation in humid air, but the aggressive environment (e.g. acid rain,..) the outdoor bronze monuments are exposed to, influences their further corrosion and degradation. In spite of the extensive corrosion studies of bronze and artist’s patina, only few direct correlations of environmental conditions, to which a work of art is exposed, to the corrosion development exist. Furthermore, this problem is exacerbated due to the rapid global environmental changes and pollution. In order to protect bronze cultural heritage objects only certain corrosion protection methods may be used, but the protection systems that were in the use till now are not always effective and could be environmentally questionable, and need to be adapted to the environmental conditions a work of art is exposed to. Furthermore, the increasing urbanisation, mass tourism, neglect or vandalism of the outdoor-exposed bronze objects, end the ever-changing means and ways of communication among people of different generations call also for modern social measures/actions to be developed to provide care for their physical component, and appreciation of cultural heritage monuments in general.
For this project four case studies of bronze monuments are selected in urban (at traffic and non-traffic road), coastal and rural areas of Slovenia. The project will aim to: a) develop the appropriate monitoring system at each location; b) characterise the corrosion products at the selected case studies and eventual artists’ patinations; c) establish the direct correlations of environmental conditions a work of art is exposed to with the corrosion development; d) develop the tailored protection systems; e) develop ICT tools in order to engage the local interested public, tourists, school,… to send photos of damaged parts of selected monuments to a common server; f) image analysis and correlation/comparison with the scientific testing/research described above; g) develop an alert system in order to on time inform the stakeholders of the potential damage recorded by the public; h) special attention will be put to attract the public (e.g. school project, generally motivated citizens/tourists). The project aims to a holistic approach in the care for bronze cultural heritage objects. The progress beyond the state of the art will therefore bring original results in scientific as well as social aspects, such as advanced and effective monitoring system, new databases, correlations of corrosion development in the changing climate, effective and tailored protection systems for outdoor bronze objects, advanced ICT tools, and new social mechanisms in order to include society in the care of cultural heritage.
Each of these results will impact the development of science. For example, new databases that will be generated within the project will further be useful in different scientific fields, such as Material science, Corrosion science, Conservation science, Heritage science, Analytical Chemistry, Environmental science, ICT science, etc. The new protective systems will greatly influence the development of restoration/conservation and preventive conservation scientific fields, as they will be tailored according to the composition of the objects, including the presence of patinas, as well as to their exposure in the specific polluted environment. The proposed tailored protection systems for outdoor bronze objects against environmental factors in different climatic conditions is not described in neither scientific nor technical literature, what increase the importance and the novelty of the results of the project. The results will be patentable and publishable in scientific high-impact journals. Furthermore, the new guidelines for the use of the developed protection coatings will influence conservation/restoration, conservation science and preventive conservation fields. All these will fundamentally influence the development of the Technical Art History field.
|J2-9224, Multiparametric dynamic modeling of stratified strongly inhomogeneous elastic structures||http://www.fini-unm.si/temeljna-raziskava/vecparametricno-dinamicno-modeliranje-plastovitih-mocno-nehomogenih-elasticnih-struktur/||Multi-layered engineering structures with high contrast material and geometric parameters, used in modern industrial applications, are often subject to intensive dynamic loading drastically affecting their performance. This motivates the development of specialised powerful theories and robust computational methodologies aimed at advanced multi-parametric analysis involving accurate evaluation and qualitative interpretation of vibration spectra and associated displacement and stress fields, which are invaluable both for the optimal design and non-destructive testing. Nowadays, there are no mathematically consistent 2D dynamic theories, i.e. the equations of motion and associated boundary conditions, for thin elastic structures specially oriented to a broad enough variety of setups of the contrast between various characteristics of the layers arising in high-tech domains. The contrast properties of layered structures also bring in a number of challenges in numerical computation of dynamic response.
The ultimate goal of the proposed research is the derivation of consistent 2D dynamic models for layered strongly inhomogeneous structures. This complex and challenging problem assumes elucidation of analytical, computational and experimental aspects of their dynamic behaviour with the main emphasis on interaction of shear and bending waves.
Dynamic behaviour of strongly inhomogeneous layered elastic plates is investigated. Four types of high contrast in material and geometrical parameters of the layers, arising in modern industries including light-weight sandwich structures, are considered. For each type of contrast scenario, a 2D consistent plate model is derived via multi-parametric analysis of the original 3D problem in elasticity. The models consist of equations of motion, as well as boundary conditions obtained by generalising the conventional Saint-Venant principle. Along with the bending vibration modes, the aforementioned models also support the lowest shear modes with small cut-off frequencies. The proposed formulations are validated by FEM calculations, and also visualised experimentally.
The project team consists of four partner institutions, including project group members having a world leading experience in the field of structural dynamics, as well as a substantial competence both in computational and experimental mechanics. The modern experimental equipment used by the project team includes laser vibrometers, accelerometers, strain gauges and optical imagery system.
The proposed approach is expected to make a major contribution to the new area within structural dynamics related to multi-parametric analysis of strongly inhomogeneous structures. It enables numerous extensions and generalisations, such as taking into account curvature, anisotropy, asymmetry, and viscosity. The potential applications of the project results involve, in particular, design and manufacturing of lightweight structural elements, which exhibit a better performance, than their heavyweight counterparts, especially for automotive industry.
|J2-9211, Improving the properties of metallic materials by the subcooling process||https://www.imt.si/aktualno/novice-dogodki/j2-9211||Despite the huge potential and capability of deep cryogenic treatments (DCT) for improving the properties and performance of materials, these processes are still hardly known and implemented in practice. The main reason is that the development of this technology has been mainly empiric, without a clear understanding of the scientific basics that underline the transformations provoked by deep cryogenic temperatures in the materials. The deep cryogenic treatment is a thermal treatment similar to the heat treatments, with one major difference. The conventional heat treatment is part of the material development program. Deep cryogenic treatment is not and is only “tried out” for some materials. This situation has led to a misuse of these processes in many circumstances and, as a result, to a lack of consistency in the results. Furthermore, although there are many reports on positive effect of deep cryogenic treatments, the metallurgical fundamentals that are behind these processes are not completely understood yet.
The main objective of this project proposal is to move away from trial and error approach and go more in deep in the knowledge of the fundamentals of this technology and to reach an exhaustive and multi-scale knowledge about deep cryogenic treatment and its effects on materials including micro-structural mechanisms and related changes in macroscopic properties. Improved fundamental knowledge is essential in order to prepare clear guidelines as known in conventional heat treatment technologies and to develop more robust and standardized cryogenic processes, which would lead to more predictable results when they are used in industry, including large and heavy equipment. Challenge of the proposed research is to provide a more reliable approach and a more in-depth understanding of the correlations between microstructural changes and properties by overcoming the current trial-and-error approach. In this way new possibilities in terms of further material properties improvement can be expected, not being limited only to steel but also to other metals.
|J1-9179 Non-traditional isotopes as identifiers of autigenic carbonates||http://www.environment.si/en/projects/j1-9179/||Authigenic carbonate has been invoked as a third major global sink of CO2, and quantitative estimates of its production have so far been made only for marine carbonates. In terrestrial environments, the first estimates of precipitation of authigenic carbonate in watersheds based on Sr isotopes (δ88/86Sr) indicate that this sink has been most probably dramatically underestimated, and that the magnitudes of terrestrial C fluxes and mass balance in general need to be reconsidered. The proposed project develops advanced isotopic tools for identification and quantification of authigenic carbonate in terrestrial sediments and aquifers in areas dominated by carbonate lithology. As identifiers of authigenic carbonate, isotope ratios of non-traditional isotopes of U and its decay products, Mo, Sr and Mg will be tested and validated (the term non-traditional isotopes is used for the isotopic ratios of elements which are analysed using advanced plasma source mass spectrometry with multiple collectors - MC-ICP-MS). Objectives of the project are:
1. to develop methodologies for determination of isotope composition of “non-traditional” isotopes (U, Mo, Sr, Mg) and to apply advanced analytical tools (non-traditional isotopes and 2D MS mapping) to the analysis of formation of authigenic carbonate phases in freshwater sediments and aquifers, which have been recently recognized as an important global carbon sink;
2. to extend the knowledge on non-traditional isotopes of redox sensitive U and Mo, as well as Sr and Mg co-precipitating with carbonate in marine sedimentary systems to freshwater environments, so as to identify and quantify authigenic carbonate precipitation in fluvial and lacustrine environment, as well as in karstic aquifer;
3. to combine traditional geochemical tools (i.e. elemental ratios), stable isotopes of light elements (C and O), radiocarbon, and upgrade the obtained information with more powerful tools - isotopic ratios of non-traditional isotopes (U and its decay products, Mo, Sr and Mg) in carbonate and water in three different aquatic systems in areas with dominant carbonate lithology, so as to identify and quantify the extent of authigenic carbonate formation as C sink in analysed environments.
The test environments will be (i) a karstic limestone and doslostone aquifer, (ii) tufa barriers formed in a carbonate precipitating streamand (iii) lacustrine carbonaceous sediments formed in a lentic section of a tufa precipitating stream. The field studies will be complemented with laboratory mesocosm experiments, conducted to obtain information on element partition and isotope fractionation between water and carbonate, which cannot be directly measured in complex field samples. We will apply the most advanced high-resolution isotopic tools – multicollector mass spectrometry (MS-ICP-MS) and combine them with traditional stable isotopes of light elements, in search of reliable identifiers of authigenic carbonate. The MS mapping using laser ablation – ICP-MS combined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS) and Raman imaging, to study individual grains of authigenic carbonate and obtain information, which cannot be obtained only by using the combination of routine chemical, mineralogical and sedimentological analytical methods. The result of the project will be an analytical toolkit for differentiation and quantification of authigenic from detrital carbonate even in complex sedimentary settings in areas with carbonaceous lithology.
To achieve this, we will join capacities and instrumentation of two department of the Jožef Stefan Institute (Environmental Sciences, Advanced Materials) and National building and civil engineering institute. Partners from leading international laboratories in the field of analytical chemistry, geochemistry and geochemical modelling will participate in the project and will contribute to the achievement of project objectives.
|J2-9196, Massive concrete - optimizing technology using advanced testing methods||https://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/raziskovalna-dejavnost/projekti/j2-9195-masivni-betoni-optimiziranje-tehnologije-ob-uporabi-naprednih-preskusnih-metod/||During hardening of mass concrete structures (MCS) high amount of heat resulting from hydration and material’s shrinkage develop within concrete elements. This often results into formation of cracks and other failures which negatively influence quality, functionality, and durability of MCS.
To effectively overcome the above problems, important issues have to be fulfilled, e.g. appropriate basic materials and design of mass concrete mixture, optimal building technology, accurate pre-calculation of the development of temperature field inside mass concrete element using real, actual characteristics of input materials, etc. To achieve the above requirements, the use of modern technology of design and placing of mass concrete mixtures is of paramount importance, together with the use of mineral and chemical admixtures in the composition of the material and correct and accurate experimental determination of the characteristics of basic materials. In addition to the basic mechanical
properties (compressive and bending strength, elastic moduli, etc.), other characteristics have to be evaluated in the case of MCS, namely liberation of hydration heat, thermal conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of linear expansion, shrinkage and creep, concrete porosity, self-healing capability, etc.
The above issues associated with designing and building MCS present the main motivation and introducing an appropriate technology with key measures a basic goal of the proposed project. In order to fulfil these issues, a maximum aggregate size in the composition of the material has to be reduced from generally used )63 mm to the site of 16-32 mm, which will affect overall quality of the material significantly and presents the beginning of a new, modern era of mass production of mass concrete mixtures with reduced aggregate size.
To achieve these objectives, the project will be at its first stage divided into experimental and numerical part. However, it will be further divided into seven work packages. After initial part, three parts of experimental work will follow, dealing with characterization of input materials, design of concrete mixtures, and determination of properties of fresh and hardened materials using new advanced nondestructive techniques. A wide spectra of basic materials and their combinations will be studied, resulting into a comprehensive database of concrete mixtures. On the basis of the experiments and numerical model performed by the member of the project’s research group used to calculate adiabatic hydration curve of an arbitrary concrete mixture, optimal concrete mixtures will be chosen and further analysed to determine all their properties used to achieve a required quality and durability of MCS.
Based on the real, actual values of the initial material parameters experimentally determined using advanced testing techniques, a complex numerical model for calculation of temperature field within MCS will be prepared, allowing determination of adiabatic hydration curve, calculation of fully coupled problem of water, moist air, and heat transfer and consequently prediction of shrinkage of the material. Moreover, the model will allow calculation of successive construction, i.e. determining optimal size of concrete segments as well as optimal time between constructing each segment . The above characteristics present important advantages over existing numerical models. With the objective to reduce environmental pollution, aggregate consisting of blast furnace slag will be used and detailed LCA analysis performed for all the developed mixtures
The project’s research group consists of researchers from various Slovenian research organizations with long-time experiences and adequate references in the fields of laboratory, in-situ, and numerical investigations of concrete materials which possess high quality experimental equipment. This clearly indicates importance of the subject and guarantees quality and well timed project performance.
|J2-2490 – Podatkovno podprto modeliranje obnašanja gradbenih konstrukcij||https://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/raziskovalna-dejavnost/projekti/podatkovno-podprto-modeliranje-konstrukcijskega-obnasanja-v-gradbenistvu-databridge/||The project was selected in a public tender for (co)funding of research projects for 2020, published by Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS) in cooperation with the Hungarian agency The National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH).
||Slovenian Research Agency - SRA||Uroš Bohinc||2020/11/01||2023/10/31|
|J2-3035 Synthesis of alkali activated materials with microwave heating||https://www.zag.si/projekt-j2-3035/||Alkali activated materials (AAM) are a promising alternative to conventional building materials (cement, concrete, ceramics) because the energy required to produce AAM is lower, i.e. preparation time and temperature are lower, and consequently also carbon footprint [1,2]. Materials that can be used as precursors must contain sufficient amount of Si and Al in the amorphous phase and as few elements of group 1 as possible, which are added later with the alkali activator since the final ideal ratio of elements of group 1:Al:Si of all of the ingredients together is 1:1:1.9 . The selected Al:Si ratio can be achieved by mixing the appropriate precursors. The most used precursor is metakaolin, which is considered as the standard in alkali activation . While for alkali activator mostly used are NaOH, KOH, Na-water glass and Kwater glass. First phase of the reaction in the alkaline medium, dissolution of the precursor, is followed by the transport of the elements, alumosilicate monomers formation (binding of Al and Si with O into tetrahedra), polycondensation (and dehydration) into the alumosilicate network, which is mostly amorphous . The first reaction phase is followed by the curing at low temperatures (below 100 ° C), i.e. further dehydration to the final product, i.e. AAM. AAM has already been implemented in real-life building industry in Australia, first for an airport runway in Brisbane , and then for a public building in Queensland . The aim of this project is to test the influence of electromagnetic waves in the microwave spectrum on different phases of AAM synthesis, both initial, i.e. when microwaves volumetrically increase the temperature of the alkali activated mixture, thus speeding up the reaction, shortening the synthesis time and lowering the used energy , as well as in the later stages when microwaves affect dehydration (drying) and sintering. To achieve these goals, the project will focus on: - Chemical and mineralogical analysis of metakaolin, - Determination of the optimal mixture of precursor and alkali activators , - Selection of a microwave oven for synthesis of AAM and selection of suitable moulds that can be used in a microwave oven, - Optimization of variable parameters of microwaves at all stages of AAM synthesis to achieve optimal mechanical properties of AAM, - Implementation of the acquired knowledge with using waste material for the precursor. The project is divided into 5 work packages related to the specific project objectives which will be performed by ZAG - Department of Materials, KI – Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Technology. Both groups already have extensive experience in either preparation and charcterization of AAM from different precursors or analysis of materials with NMR . The acquired knowledge will be the basis for the development of various products with better mechanical properties, prepared in a shorter time with less invested energy. The project will thus provide new interdisciplinary knowledge that will combine technology and environmental aspects.||Slovenian Research Agency||Barbara Horvat||2021/10/01||2024/09/30|
|Z2-3199 The immobilisation and leaching of toxic trace elements in alkali-activated materials prepared from locally available waste and by-products||https://www.zag.si/projekt-z2-3199/||
The overall aim of this post-doctoral project is to gain knowledge on the immobilization and leaching of various toxic microelements and trace elements (TEs) from alkali-activated materials (AAMs) prepared using locally available construction&demolition and industrial waste (or byproduct) (mineral wool waste, coal-burned fly ash and steel slag). Many parameters such as the particle size of the precursors, the initial preparation of the paste, the curing regime and the sample ageing under different conditions can significantly affect the final properties of the material. In the present work, these parameters will be systematically evaluated with respect to increasing/decreasing the leaching of TEs from AAMs. Since the long-term stability of the material is important, durability tests will be included (e.g. freeze-thaw resistance) and samples of AAMs will also be subjected to the leaching tests. Depending on the sample (granular or monolithic), different leaching tests will be performed and the results will be compared with each other and with the Slovenian legislation, where the maximum allowable concentration for toxic elements are available (values for inert, non-hazardous or hazardous waste; values for recycled materials). Toxic elements studied in this work include elements such as As, Ba Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se in Zn.
The leaching of toxic elements from AAMs is an indicator of the sustainability of materials and an important and necessary tool for proper environmental risk assessment. Accumulation of contaminants can threaten ecosystems and human health by leaching elements from AAMs (and other construction materials) into aquatic and terrestrial environments. Many studies have demonstrated the suitability of AAMs in terms of mechanical properties and durability, but to successfully bring them to the market they need to be thoroughly evaluated from an environmental perspective. Comprehensive studies with different mix designs, constituents, and influencing parameters affecting the leaching of toxic elements from AAMs are necessary to identify different options (solutions) to minimise the potential toxicity of this construction material and achieve effective waste management strategies. Since alkali activation can reduce/increase toxic elements in eluates, initial preparation and curing conditions are critical in obtaining a long-term stable final product that ensures efficient immobilisation. This should be considered when conducting research. However, the selection of the appropriate leaching method is critical to evaluate the degree of leaching for the material under study. Testing and comparing different leaching methods for AAMs will also be part of the proposed work. In an interdisciplinary manner, in this study technical knowledge (preparation and characterization of AAMs) with environmental aspects (assessment of environmental risks by performing different leaching tests) and knowledge of analytical chemistry (determination of TEs in leachates obtained by leaching AAMs). This approach is important and necessary to follow the circular economy strategy by reducing mineral waste and increasing its recyclability and reuse.
|Slovenian Research Agency||Majda Pavlin||2021/10/01||2023/09/30|
|Forest‐wood value chain and climate change: transition to circular bioeconomy||https://cris.cobiss.net/ecris/si/sl/project/18977||Despite a high share of forest cover and abundant natural resources, Slovenia's forests remain underutilized, which has also been recognized by policy makers. Consequently, several actions have been taken recently aiming at strengthening sustainable (local) forest-based value chains, from the tree in the forest to the final product with high added value. The overall objective of this research programme is to identify current challenges along the entire forest-based value chain and to search for optimal solutions by using all available knowledge and resources (laboratories and databases). To facilitate the work, the programme is divided into five working groups (WGs) covering all planned activities. In each WG, 3-5 objectives are defined, describing the main activities of the respective research programme: - WG1: Modern silviculture for higher-quality forest products - WG2: Wood properties and improved wood-based materials - WG3: Efficient use of wood in construction - WG4: Forest- and wood-based bioeconomy - WG5: Project management and dissemination. Researchers from three research organizations form the proposed research group to ensure the cross-sectoral (forestry, wood science and timber construction) and innovative approach to achieve the set objectives and to link the group with industry. The underlying theme of all WGs is the exchange of know-how and research ideas between researchers with different backgrounds. Their high professional and well-equipped laboratories ensure complete feasibility of the proposed programme, which is original, complex and interdisciplinary. The contribution of forest-based industries to the national economy can be increased by: (I) sustainable management, (II) protection of forest resources and biodiversity, and (III) use of economically viable and environmentally and socially sound wood-based products. In particular, the set objectives of the programme will contribute to: o Development of analytical methods and accumulation of knowledge, which will enhance exchange and knowledge transfer with the world scientific community. o Building (inter)national capacity to strengthen sustainable forest-based value chains taking into account sustainable forest management and climate change issues. o Increased knowledge of wood quality and properties (chemical, physical, mechanical) as a function of tree growth conditions. o Use of advanced and new technologies and processes to develop new wood-based materials and transition to a circular economy. o New information on the micro and macro-mechanical properties of wood and laminated wood products, contributing to fundamental knowledge in the fields of study. o Improved cooperation and communication among stakeholders along the forest-based value chain, leading to higher yields of wood products with higher added value (transformation from a "low-tech" industry to a "high-tech" industry); increased resilience of the value chain.||Slovenian Research Agency||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2022/01/01||2027/12/31|
|J1-3029 Holistic sustainability evaluation of critical raw materials – closing gaps and developing new methodological approaches||https://www.zag.si/projekt-j1-3029/||Slovenian Research Agency||Alenka Mauko Pranjić||2021/10/01||2024/09/30|
|L2-3172 Development of technical guidelines for quadruple glazing||https://www.fs.uni-lj.si/en/project/development-of-technical-guidelines-for-quadruple-glazing/||Slovenian Research Agency||Sabina Jordan||2021/10/01||2024/09/30|
|J1-3026 Applicability of the cold sintering process to clay minerals||Clay minerals are formed through chemical weathering of silicate-bearing rocks and aggregated in sediments. Sedimentary rocks then form through cementation processes as part of the diagenesis or compaction of sediments over millions of years. On the other hand, man-made products are formed in few days’ time. However, the related energy needs and CO2 emissions contribute to global warming. Efficient use of energy and raw materials at all stages is the key for decarbonization of construction sector. Clay sediments are an abundant but yet finite source of raw material for brick production. Fired clay bricks are one of the oldest materials produced for building purposes that remain to be preferred due to their strength and durability. A major decrease in the carbon footprint of the brick industry would be an important step towards the sustainability of the construction sector. Such a revolutionary achievement could be based on a cold sintering process (CSP), a new sintering concept for ceramic materials enabling efficient sintering at low temperatures (from room temperature to 300 °C) and mild pressures (<500 MPa). In contrast to the main research on the cold sintering focused on synthetic phase-pure materials CSP4clays puts in focus the clay mineral, abundantly available in nature, for the exploitation of mechanical properties. The aim of the CSP4clays project is to unveil the applicability of the CSP principle to clays and broaden the knowledge on the CSP principle. The project will uncover the cold sintering mechanisms during densification of selected clay materials, where complex phase evolution is anticipated. The project is initial evaluation of the low temperature process for fabrication of structural clay-based elements with large environmental benefits. Based on the comprehensive literature review and expertise of the project participants we elaborate four main objectives: 1. To research the CSP principle and underlying mechanisms on pure clay minerals kaolinite, and illite as well as anhydrous metakaolin, 2. To reveal the role of physically and chemically bounded water in the CSP of clays and track the paths of water elimination from the clay structure and the microstructure evolution of the sintered body, 3. To demonstrate the applicability of CSP to naturally occurring clay material as used in clay brick production, and 4. To compare the properties of cold sintered samples to conventionally sintered samples and literature data on geologic compaction of clay-bearing sediments. In order to assess the applicability of CSP to clays, the research will first focus on pure clay minerals and the role of physically and chemically bonded water, also by cold sintering anhydrous kaolinite (metakaolin). Incongruent dissolution of clay mineral, hindering the CSP, will be compensated by adjusting composition and pH of the liquid phase. The characterization will be focused on the changes on grain boundaries related to the mass transport occurring during CSP, providing the required mechanical performance. The next objective is to apply CSP to naturally occurring clay material as used in clay brick production. As in conventional processing, we anticipate the mechanical properties will be provided by the clay matter, which can be amorphized and re-crystallize during CSP. We will consider several strategies to aid the sintering process of natural clay material, containing more than 50% foreign phases, including addition of alkaline activators. The reactions occurring under hydrothermal conditions of CSP will be contrasted to the complex behavior of clay minerals during conventional firing. Moreover, the properties of cold-sintered samples will be contrasted to the literature data on the compaction of siliciclastic sediments with similar clay content.||Slovenian Research Agency||Vilma Ducman||2021/10/01||2024/09/30|
|L7-3185 Investigation of interconnected processes for sustainable management of sewage sludge for the purpose of its material recovery and recycling||https://www.zag.si/projekt-l7-3185/||Slovenian Research Agency||Primož Oprčkal||2021/10/01||2024/09/30|
|TiO2 materials for the simultaneous reduction of CO2 and oxidation of organic substances into compounds with added value||https://www.zag.si/projekt-j2-4441/||Andrijana Sever Škapin||2022/10/01||2025/09/30|
|J1-4413-Study of hydraulic properties of ashes from various thermal processes and improvement of their reactivity for use as an immobilization additive||https://www.zag.si/projekt-j1-4413/||Vesna Zalar Serjun||2022/10/01||2025/09/30|
|J2-4424 An integrated approach to the conservation of cultural heritage murals||https://www.zag.si/projekt-j2-4424/||Andreja Pondelak||2022/10/01||2025/09/30|
|J4-4546 Protein adhesives for high-performance interior wooden structures||Andreja Pondelak||2022/10/01||2025/09/30|
|V2-2257 Strategic bases for reducing the seismic hazard of justice buildings in Slovenia||https://www.zag.si/projekt-v2-2257/||Meta Kržan||2022/10/01||2025/09/30|
|V3-2234 Assessment of the risk to human health according to the properties of the domestic water supply system HVO||Mirjam Bajt Leban||2022/10/01||2025/09/30|
|V4-2270 Faster transition to a climate-neutral society by exploiting the potential of wood in the context of green public procurement||Katja Malovrh Rebec||2022/10/01||2025/09/30|
|N2-0258 Study of thermal properties and lifetime impact reduction of alternative hybrid eco-nanomaterials in a low pressure environment||Sabina Jordan||2022/03/01||2025/02/28|